The GI Bill of Rights -
One of the most important acts of Congress - June 22, 1944
House authors Edith Nourse Rodgers of Massachusetts and John Rankin of Mississippi look on as President Roosevelt signs legislation popularly known as the "GI Bill of Rights."
This bill, which I have signed today, substantially carries out most of the recommendations made by me in a speech on July 28, 1943, and more specifically in messages to the Congress dated October 27, 1943, and November 23, 1943:
Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944
GI BILL Act of June 22, 1944 [Servicemen's Readjustment Act [G.I. Bill of Rights]] Unrestricted. (NWCTB-11-LAWS-PI159E6-PL78(346)) The Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 put higher education within the reach of millions of veterans of World War II and later military conflicts.
History of the G.I. Bill
On June 22, 1944, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the "Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944," better known as the "GI Bill of Rights." At first the subject of intense debate and parliamentary maneuvering, the famed legislation for veteran of World War II has since been recognized as one of the most important acts of Congress.
During the past six decades, the law has made possible the investment of billions of dollars in education and training for millions of veterans. The nation has in return earned many times its investment in increased taxes and a dramatically changed society.
The law also made possible the loan of billions of dollars to purchase homes for millions of veterans, and helped transform the majority of Americans from renters to homeowners.
An Uncertain BeginningThough it became law in a fast-paced six months, many in Congress and educators at Colleges and Universities had serious misgivings. Some felt the GI Bill was too expensive and would encourage loth among veterans. Others feared veterans would lower standards in education. But even greater was the pressure to pass something to offset dire economics predictions for the post-war years.
Many saw a postwar America faced with the loss of millions of jobs, creating unprecedented unemployment. A federal survey indicated that 56% of the nation's soldiers anticipated a widespread economic depression after the war.
As early as 1942, plans were being made to handle the anticipated postwar problems. The National Resources Planning Board, a White House agency, had studied postwar manpower needs and in June 1943, recommended a series of programs for education and training.
Establishing the GI Bill
The American Legion is credited with designing the main features of the GI Bill and pushing it through Congress. The Legion overcame objections that the proposed bill was too sweeping and could jeopardize veterans getting any help at all. At the time Congress had already failed to act on about 640 bills concerning veterans.
Members of the American Legion met first in Washington on December 15, 1943, and by January 6 had completed the first draft of the GI Bill. The board outlines were in the final law signed six months later. John Stelle, a former Governor of Illinois, and a leader of the Legion, is credited with drawing up the first draft of the bill that eventually became law.
Introducing the GI Bill
The bill was introduced in the House on January 10th and in the Senate on the 11th. In the House it was sponsored by John Rankin and Edith Nourse Rogers, ranking Democrat and Republican of the Veteran committee. It was introduced in the Senate by Bennett Champ Clark, a Legion founder and chairman of the Senate Veterans subcommittee.
The Legion led a nationwide campaign to win the bill's passage. In Washington, Legion members met with all members of Congress. Almost daily the Legion would send out telegrams to local Legion members, telling them which members of Congress were uncertain about or opposed to the legislation. This prompted a flood of letters and phone calls urging legislators to support the bill.
Passage of the GI Bill
Passage came fist in the Senate, on March 24, by 50 to 0 vote. At first the bill was bottled up in a House committee. When it finally reached a vote on May 18, it passed 387 to 0.
The struggle was not over. When a conference committee debated the difference in the Senate and House versions, the bill almost died. The Senate members agreed on one provision but the House delegation split 3-3 and the committee chairman refused to vote a sick member's authorized proxy. The bill was saved by rushing Rep. John Gibson from Georgia to cast his tie-breaking vote.
Approval of the GI Bill
The Senate approved the final form of the bill on June 12, and the House followed on June 13. President Roosevelt made it law on June 22, signing it in the presence of five Legionnaires and several members of Congress.
Subsequent legislation for veterans, often also called GI Bills, has adjusted benefits over the years to fit the changes of America.
Men and women in uniform still earn education benefits. Instead of being used to help veterans ease into civilian life, education benefits now are offered as an incentive to join the current all-volunteer military forces. Home-loan guarantees have been increased from the $2,000 guarantees that sufficed after World War II, to a maximum of $46,000 today, which allows a veteran to finance a home with a loan up to $184,000 without a down payment.
The first GI Bill provided six benefits:
The first three of these benefits were administered by VA.
To be eligible for GI Bill education benefits, a World War II veteran had to serve 90 days or more after September 16, 1940; and have other than a dishonorable discharge. Veterans of the war were entitled to one year of full-time training plus a period equal to their time in service, up to a maximum of 48 months.
VA paid the educational institution up to a maximum of $500 a year for tuition, books, fees, and other training costs. VA also paid the single veteran a subsistence allowance of up to $50 a month. This was increased to $65 a month in 1946 and to $75 a month in 1948. Allowances for veterans with dependents were higher.
This program ended July 25, 1956. In the peak year of 1947, veterans accounted for 49 percent of college enrollment. Out of a veteran population of 15,440,000, some 7.8 million were trained, including:
Total cost of the World War II education program was $14.5 billion. Millions who would have flooded the labor market instead opted for education, which reduced joblessness during the demobilization period. When they did enter the labor market, most were better prepared to contribute to the support of their families and society.
Korean Conflict GI Bill
Public Law 550, the "Veterans Readjustment Assistance Act of 1952, " was approved by President Truman on July 16, 1952. To be eligible for Korean GI Bill benefits, a veteran had to:
Like the World War II program, the Korean GI Bill provided education and training benefits as well as home, farm, and business loans. But unlike the federally funded unemployment allowance for World War II veterans, it made payment of unemployment compensation a state function.
VA paid a single veteran an education benefit of up to $110 a month, out of which the veteran paid for tuition, books, fees, supplies, and other training costs. Allowances for veterans with dependents were higher. The decision to have veterans pay for their tuition and books was made after Congressional hearings disclosed fraud by colleges and other institutions in the program for World War II veterans. Korean Conflict veterans were entitled to GI Bill education and training for a period equal to one and one-half times their active service, up to a maximum of 36 months of training.
This program ended on January 31, 1965. During the course of the program, 2,391,000 of 5,509,000 eligible veterans received training, including:
Total cost of the Korean Conflict GI Bill education and training program was $4.5 billion.
Post-Korean - Vietnam Era GI Bill
Public Law 358, the "Veterans Readjustment Benefits Act of 1966, " was approved by President Lyndon B. Johnson on March 3, 1966. Home and farm loans, job counseling, and an employment placement service were other benefits provided. The education and training program went into effect on June 1, 1966. It was retroactive, providing benefits to Post-Korean veterans, who served between February 1, 1955, and August 4, 1964, as well as to Vietnam Era veterans, who served between August 5, 1964, and May 7, 1975. For the first time in GI Bill history, service personnel also were eligible for GI Bill education and training while they were on active duty.
To be eligible, a veteran had to serve more than 180 continuous days, any part of which was after January 31, 1955, and have other than a dishonorable discharge. Participants on active duty had to have two years of service. This was later changed to 180 days.
Originally, this GI Bill provided one month of education and training for each month of service, for a maximum of 36 months. In December 1976, maximum entitlement was extended to 45 months.
A major change in 1967 enabled veterans to take cooperative farm, on-job, flight and correspondence training. Disadvantaged veterans, those who did not finish high school before entering service, were given full VA benefits while completing high school without losing any entitlement for college or other training.
VA paid the veteran directly, out of which he or she paid tuition, fees, books, and other training costs. At first, a single veteran received up to $100 a month. Later legislation increased this rate as the following table shows:
This program ended on December 31, 1989. During the years of the program, a total of 8.2 million veterans and service members received training, as follows:
VA spent more than $42 billion during this time to provide educational assistance.
Description of Current Programs
38 U.S.C. Chapter 32, Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Program (VEAP)
VEAP was the first GI Bill program which required a contribution by the service member. It was available to people who entered on active duty between December 31, 1976, and July 1, 1985. These service members could volunteer to contribute between $25 and $100 a month which would be matched on a 2-for-1 basis by the government. Total contribution by the service person could be no more than $2700, but DOD could make additional contributions, or "kickers", into the fund on behalf of individuals in critical military fields to encourage enlistment or reenlistment in the Armed Forces. In 1996, Public Law 104-275 provided that certain VEAP participants who were on active duty on October 9, 1996, could elect MGIB. The deadline for this election was October 8, 1997. 41,041 veterans and servicepersons took advantage of this opportunity to elect MGIB. Here is a summary of the main features of VEAP:
38 U.S.C. Chapter 30, Montgomery G. I. Bill - Active Duty Educational Assistance Program (MGIB)
MGIB is the education program for individuals initially entering active duty after June 30, 1985. Payments for MGIB benefits currently represent 78 percent of the total VA educational assistance payments. MGIB was enacted not only to help with the readjustment of discharged service members, but also to support the concept of an all volunteer armed force. With this in mind, a provision was made to allow certain veterans with remaining entitlement under the Vietnam Era GI Bill, to qualify for MGIB benefits if they continued their active duty.
MGIB is available to honorably discharged veterans and to service-members. Although there are a number of categories of eligibles, generally, veterans must:
MGIB is a contributory program. Service pay is automatically reduced by $100 per month for 12 months unless the service person declines to participate at the time of enlistment. Individuals on active duty must complete a minimum of two years of continuous active duty to be eligible. Qualified service members with remaining Vietnam Era entitlement are exempt from the pay reduction requirement.
The MGIB benefit rate varies depending on active service and Selected Reserve obligation.
MGIB has proven to be extremely popular among young people enlisting in the services. 94.8 percent of those who enlisted in service in Fiscal Year 1996 enrolled in the program. 75.7 percent of all enlistees since the inception of the program have enrolled.
The following briefly summarizes major MGIB provisions:
10 U.S.C. Chapter 1606, Montgomery G. I. Bill - Selected Reserve Educational Assistance Program (MGIB-SR)
MGIB-SR is the first GI Bill to provide educational assistance to members of the Selected Reserve (including National Guard units.) This program is primarily an incentive for recruitment into the Selected Reserve. DOD funds this program and is responsible for determining eligibility to MGIB-SR. VA administers the program. In general to be eligible, a reservist must:
Eligible reservists are currently entitled to full-time education benefits of $208.93 monthly in MGIB-SR benefits. Some states are now offering their own tuition assistance programs to complement the MGIB-SR benefits. Generally reservists must maintain their Selected Reserve status to receive benefits. While other VA programs usually give the veteran ten years from the date of military discharge to use benefits, MGIB-SR must be used within 10 years from the date eligibility began. Here is a summary of the main features of MGIB-SR:
Based on a 6-year Selected Reserve obligation after July 1, 1985
38 U.S.C. Chapter 35, Survivors' and Dependents' Educational Assistance Program (DEA)
DEA is the only VA educational assistance program designed for students who have never served in the Armed Forces. Public Law 84-634, The War Orphans' Educational Assistance Act of 1956, established this benefit program. It is therefore the oldest active VA educational assistance program. DEA provides educational assistance to the spouses and children of living veterans who:
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