Living Will

The front page this week will be different, but I think it is more important than all the others in the past. It is because Terri Schiavo, a severely brain-damaged woman who spent 15 years connected to a feeding tube, has now died after her feeding tube was removed by court order.

Michael Schiavo, Terri's husband, had the tube removed after the legal and medical battle that went all the way to our three branches of government. The two Houses of Congress, the White House, and after all the lower courts ruling in favor of removing the feeding tube, the case went to the U.S. Supreme court.

I have personal experience of a brain-dead person. My mother, age 88, had a stroke and oxygen stopped going to her brain. Unfortunately, she had no Living Will, so she was fed with a feeding tube for two years until my bother and I signed a legal document to have the tube removed. Of course, we did this only after many medical doctors reported that her brain would never recover. During the two years she could only move her eyes and her eyes seem to be open all the time.

I do have a Living Will and I wouldn't die without it. The forms for a Living Will may be purchased many places, but today I will present you with two Living Wills at no cost to you. These two Living Wills offer the options of expressing the " Desire to utilize life prolonging procedures" or "Desire NOT to utilize life prolonging procedures."   Please be advised that these two Living Wills are samples. You may use them as they are if that is what you want, or you may change them the way you want them to read.

Desire to Utilize Life Prolonging Procedures

Living Will of _________________________________________

Declaration made this ___________________ day of ________________________, 2005:

I, __________________________ (date of birth _____________) ("Declarant"), willfully and voluntarily make known my desire that my dying be artificially prolonged if, at any time, I am incapacitated and I have a terminal condition; or I have an end-stage condition; or
I am in a persistent vegetative state.

My intention to have my death artificially prolonged applies even if my attending or treating physician and another consulting physician have determined that there is no reasonable medical probability of my recovery from such condition.

Under such conditions, I direct that life-prolonging procedures (including nutrition and hydration) be utilized even when the application of such procedures would serve only to prolong artificially the process of dying.

It is my intention that this declaration be honored by my family and physician as the final expression of my legal rights.

In the event I have been determined to be unable to provide express and informed consent regarding the withholding, withdrawal, or continuation of life-prolonging procedures, I wish to designate as my surrogate to carry out the provisions of this declaration:

Name: _______________________________________________________________________

Address: _____________________________________________________________________

City, State, ZIP: ______________________________________________________________

Telephone: __________________________________________________________________

I understand the full import of this declaration, and I am emotionally and mentally competent to make this declaration.

Declarant's Signature _________________________________________________________

Street Address ________________________________________________________________

City, State & Zip ______________________________________________________________

Witness Signature _____________________________________________________________

Witness Name _________________________________________________________________

Street Address ________________________________________________________________

City, State & Zip ______________________________________________________________

Phone ________________________________________________________________________

The witness should not be a husband or wife or a blood relative of the Declarant.



Desire Not to Utilize Life Prolonging Procedures

Living Will of _____________________________________________

Declaration made this ___________________ day of __________________________, 2005:

I, ____________________ (date of birth _____________) ("Declarant"), willfully and voluntarily make known my desire that my dying not be artificially prolonged if, at any time, I am incapacitated and I am in a persistent vegetative state, and if my attending or treating physician and another consulting physician have determined that there is no reasonable medical probability of my recovery from such condition.

Under such conditions, I direct that life-prolonging procedures (including nutrition and hydration) be withheld or withdrawn when the application of such procedures would serve only to prolong artificially the process of dying, and that I be permitted to die naturally with only the administration of medication or the performance of any medical procedure deemed necessary to provide me with comfort care or to alleviate pain.

It is my intention that this declaration be honored by my family and physician as the final expression of my legal right to refuse medical or surgical treatment and to accept the consequences for such refusal.

In the event I have been determined to be unable to provide express and informed consent regarding the withholding, withdrawal, or continuation of life-prolonging procedures, I wish to designate as my surrogate to carry out the provisions of this declaration:

Name: _________________________________________________________________________

Address: _______________________________________________________________________

City, State, ZIP: ________________________________________________________________

Telephone: ____________________________________________________________________

I understand the full import of this declaration, and I am emotionally and mentally competent to make this declaration.

Declarant's Signature ___________________________________________________________

Street Address _________________________________________________________________

City, State & Zip _______________________________________________________________

Witness Signature _____________________________________________________________

Witness Name _________________________________________________________________

Street Address ________________________________________________________________

City, State & Zip ______________________________________________________________

Phone ________________________________________________________________________

The witness should not be a husband or wife or a blood relative of the Declarant.

 

Daylight Saving Time
will begin on
Sunday, April 3.

We must remember to "Spring Forward"


History of Daylight Saving Time

Daylight Saving Time is a change in the standard time of each time zone. Time zones were first used by the railroads in 1883 to standardize their schedules. According to the The Canadian Encyclopedia Plus by McClelland & Stewart Inc., Canada's "[Sir Sandford] Fleming also played a key role in the development of a worldwide system of keeping time. Trains had made obsolete the old system where major cities and regions set clocks according to local astronomical conditions. Fleming advocated the adoption of a standard or mean time and hourly variations from that according to established time zones. He was instrumental in convening an International Prime Meridian Conference in Washington in 1884 at which the system of international standard time -- still in use today -- was adopted."

In 1918, the U.S. Congress made the U.S. rail zones official under federal law and gave the responsibility to make any changes to the Interstate Commerce Commission, the only federal transportation regulatory agency at the time. When Congress created the Department of Transportation in 1966, it transferred the responsibility for the time laws to the new department.

The American law by which we turn our clock forward in the spring and back in the fall is known as the Uniform Time Act of 1966. The law does not require that anyone observe Daylight Saving Time; all the law says is that if we are going to observe Daylight Saving Time, it must be done uniformly.

Daylight Saving Time has been around for most of this century and even earlier.

Benjamin Franklin, while a minister to France, first suggested the idea in an essay titled "An Economical Project for Diminishing the Cost of Light." The essay was first published in the Journal de Paris in April 1784. But it wasn't for more than a century later that an Englishman, William Willett, suggested it again in 1907.

Willett was reportedly passing by a home where the shades were down, even though the sun was up. He wrote a pamphlet called "The Waste of Daylight" because of his observations.

Willett wanted to move the clock ahead by 80 minutes in four moves of 20 minutes each during the spring and summer months. In 1908, the British House of Commons rejected advancing the clock by one hour in the spring and back again in the autumn.

Willett's idea didn't die, and it culminated in the introduction of British Summer Time by an Act of Parliament in 1916. Clocks were put one hour ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) during the summer months.

England recognized that the nation could save energy and changed their clocks during the first World War.

In 1918, in order to conserve resources for the war effort, the U.S. Congress placed the country on Daylight Saving Time for the remainder of WW I. It was observed for seven months in 1918 and 1919. The law, however, proved so unpopular that it was later repealed.

When America went to war again, Congress reinstated Daylight Saving Time on February 9, 1942. Time in the U.S. was advanced one hour to save energy. It remained advanced one hour forward year-round until September 30, 1945.

In England, the energy saving aspects of Daylight Saving were recognized again during WWII. Clocks were changed two hours ahead of GMT during the summer, which became known as Double Summer Time. But it didn't stop with the summer. During the war, clocks remained one hour ahead of GMT though the winter.

From 1945 to 1966, there was no U.S. law about Daylight Saving Time. So, states and localities were free to observe Daylight Saving Time or not.

This, however, caused confusion -- especially for the broadcasting industry, and for trains and buses. Because of the different local customs and laws, radio and TV stations and the transportation companies had to publish new schedules every time a state or town began or ended Daylight Saving Time.

By 1966, some 100 million Americans were observing Daylight Saving Time through their own local laws and customs. Congress decided to step in end the confusion and establish one pattern across the country. The Uniform Time Act of 1966 (15 U.S. Code Section 260a) created Daylight Saving Time to begin on the last Sunday of April and to end on the last Sunday of October. Any area that wanted to be exempt from Daylight Saving Time could do so by passing a local ordinance. The law was amended in 1986 to begin Daylight Saving Time on the first Sunday in April.

Contact Noah at:
Noah@SemperFidelisNoah.com

(Archive - Week of April 2, 2005)

000Noah's ARKives



Autobiography


Previous Articles


World History & Politics


Man / Woman's
Best Friend
(My Sir Winston)


Cooking

The Few. The Proud.

U.S. Marine Scrapbook

Links

U.S. Constitution

Build Your
Own Web Site

Current Events


Your Opinions


Home